[TOEFL iBT] Danh sách từ vựng – Vần A

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ABANDON

To give up completely – abandoned the sinking ship.

Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake

ABASH

To lose self-confidence; to confuse, put to shame – abashed before the assembled dignitaries.

Synonyms: fluster, disconcert, discomfit, discompose

Antonym: (adj.) self-possessed

ABDICATE

To give up claim to – abdicated the throne

Synonyms: renounce, abandon, relinquish

ABET

To encourage -or support – treacherously abetted the enemy.

Synonyms: spur, incite

Antonym: deter

ABRIDGE

To shorten – abridged his lengthy speech.

Synonyms: curtail, diminish, retrench

Anthonyms: protract, elongate, amplify

ABROGATE

To abolish or render void – a treaty abrogated by mutual consent.

Synonyms: annul, nullify, rescind, void

ABSTEMIOUS

Moderate in the use of food or drink – abstemious in his habits.

Synonym: temperate

ACADEMIC

Pertaining to school; theoretical academic interests; an academic discussion, with no practical implications.

Synonym: scholastic

ACCEDE

To agree to -accede to a request.

Synonym: assent

Antonym: demur

ACCELERATE

To quicken, speed tip – took an accelerated course in order to graduate early.

Synonym: expedite (adj. expeditious)

Antonym: retard

ACCOLADE

An award or salute – a tremendous accolade for a returning hero.

Synonyms: tribute, ovation

ACCORD

Agreement or harmony – in full accord with his view.

Synonyms: concord, concurrence

Antonyms: dissension, discord

ACRIMONIOUS

Sharp or harsh in language or temper – stung by the acrimonious remark.

Synonyms: caustic, acerb, pungent, tart, mordant, acrid; (noun) asperity

Antonyms: suave, affable

ACUMEN

Keenness of mind or insight – showing exceptional business acumen.

Synonyms: perspicacity, discernment, perception

Antonym: obtuseness

ADMONISH

(noun: ADMONITION): To warn or find fault gently – admonishing the unruly child.

Synonyms: chide, caution, reprimand, reprehend, reproach

ADVERSARY

(adj.: ADVERSE): An opponent – his adversary in a bitter debate.

Synonym: antagonist

Antonyms: cohort, confederate, ally, accomplice.

ADVERSITY

Misfortune – calm in the face of adversity.

Synonyms: affliction, mischance, reverses

AESTHETIC

Pertaining to the beautiful – interested in aesthetic values rather than in purely practical affairs.

AFFABLE

Sociable, courteous, and agreeable in manner a much admired, affable gentleman.

Synonyms: civil, complaisant, benign, gracious, genial, urbane, cordial

Antonyms: curt, brusque, rude, boorish, surly

AFFLUENT

Prosperous, flourishing; copious – a large bequest from an affluent grandfather.

Synonyms: opulent, profuse

Antonyms: destitute, impecunious

AGGRESSIVE

(noun: AGGRESSION. an unprovoked attack): self-assertive; attacking, offensive – annoyed people by his aggressive attitude;

Synonyms: bumptious, officious, obtrusive

Antonyms: meek, humble, retiring, diffident

ALACRITY

Eagerness; cheerful promptness – responded to the flattering offer with alacrity.

Synonyms: celerity, briskness, energy, animation

Antonyms: apathy, nonchalance, sluggishness, lethargy, phlegmatism

ALIENATE

To estrange – altenated by his gruff manner.

ALLAY

To calm; to lessen in severity – at ease now that his fears have been allayed.

Synonyms: appease, alleviate, pacify, assuage, abate, mitigate, propitiate, mollify, placate

Antonyms: intensify, aggravate

ALLUDE

(noun: ALLUSION): To refer to indirectly – alluded quite subtly to his friend’s misfortune.

Synonyms: insinuate, intimate, imply

Antonyms: refer, cite

ALLURE

To tempt by flattery or an attractive offer – allured by the prospect of a new job.

Synonyms: lure, decoy, inveigle, entice, seduce, wheedle, beguile, cajole

Antonym: repel

AMBIGUOUS

Uncertain, vague, capable of being inter- in more than one way – puzzled by the ambiguous statement.

Synonyms: hazy, obscure, equivocal, dubious, nebulous

Antonyms: explicit, unquestionable

AMENABLE

Obedient; willing to submit – amenable to the suggestion.

Synonyms: tractable, docile, responsive

Antonyms: intractable, refractory, recalcitrant

AMIABLE

Good-natured; friendly – attracted friends by his amiable disposition.

Synonym: complaisant

ANACHRONISM

A thing placed or occurring out of its normal time – A machine gun at the Battle of Yorktown would be an anachronism.

ANALOGY

(adj.: ANALOGOUS): A relation between two things shown in the resemblance not of the things themselves but of their characteristics- He indicated points of analogy between the two situations.

Synonyms: correspondence, affinity

Antonym: anomaly (a deviation from the general rule)

ANARCHY

State of confusion or lawlessness – a country brought to utter anarchy by civil war.

Synonyms: chaos, pandemonium

ANIMUS

A feeling of hatred-felt no animus, even against the enemy.

Synonyms: enmity, rancor, malevolence, animosity

Antonym: amity

ANNALS

Historical records – in the annals of literature.

ANONYMOUS

Of unknown authorship-an anonymous publication.

ANTHOLOGY

A collection of choice literary works – an anthology of modern poetry.

ANTITHESIS

(adj.: ANTITHETICAL): Contrast; the direct opposite – His selfish attitude seemed to me the antithesis o patriotism.

APATHY

(adj.: APATHETIC): Lack of feeling, emotion, or interest – attributed his failure to apathy, rather than lack of ability.

Synonyms: torpor, lethargy, sluggishness, listlessness, languor, lassitude, dispassion; (verb) languish

Antonyms: zeal, animation

APPREHENSIVE

(verb: APPREHEND): Fearful – Being unprepared, John is apprehensive of the examination.

APPRISE

To inform – apprisedhis lieutenants of the new situation.

APPROBATION

Approval; praise -a plan that met with hearty approbation.

Synonyms: sanction, commendation

Synonyms: sanction, commendation

Antonym: disapprobation

APT

(noun: APTITUDE, APTNESS):

(1) Likely; inclined or disposed – apt to succeed. Synonym: prone

(2) Fit, suitable – an apt remark.

Synonyms: appropriate, felicitous

(3) Skillful, expert – apt at woodcarving.

Synonyms: deft, dextrous, adept. Antonym: inept

ARBITER

A person who has authority to decide matters in dispute – a fair decision rendered by the arbiter.

Synonyms: mediator, arbitrator

ARCHETYPE

An original pattern – copies reproduced from the archetype.

Synonym: prototype

Antonyms: Stereotype, facsimile, replica

ARID

Dry; barren – the arid desert land.

Synonyms. jejune, parched

Antonyms: arable, fertile

ARISTOCRACY

Government by the best people; a privileged class -special privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy.

Synonym: oligarchy

Antonym: democracy

ARMISTICE

A temporary suspension of hostilities. The armistice halted the war.

Synonym: truce

ARTFUL

Sly; crafty – attained his mean objective by artful measures.

Synonyms: cunning, wily, adroit, ingenious, guileful

Antonyms: guileless, ingenuous, artless

ARTICULATE

(verb): To speak clearly or distinctly – articulated slowly so that he could not be misunderstood.

(adj.): Capable of speech; distinct, clear – an articulate man, always ready to give his views.

ASCETIC

Rigorously self-denying – pursued the ascetic life of a monk.

Synonyms: austere, abstinent

Antonyms: wanton, self-indulgent

ASKANCE

With distrust – looked askance at the forged signature.

ASSEVERATE

To declare positively; to confirm – asseverated his views with conviction.

Synonyms: assert, avouch, aver, avow, allege

Antonyms: gainsay, controvert, recant, rescind, abjure, disavow

ASSIDUOUS

Industrious – an assiduous worker, toiling long hours.

Synonyms: sedulous, attentive, diligent, indefatigable

Antonyms: indolent, slothful

ASYLUM

A place offering shelter and retreat -found asylum from persecution.

Synonyms: sanctuary, refuge

ATHEIST

One who denies that God exists – The atheist declared, “There is no God.”

Synonyms: infidel, agnostic, skeptic

ATTRIBUTE

(verb): Assign -attributed his success to bard work.

Synonym: ascribe

(noun): An inherent quality -Generosity was his outstanding attribute.

AUGMENT

To increase or enlarge – an army augmented by numerous enlistments.

Synonyms: enhance, amplify – Antonyms: abate, curtail

AUSPICIOUS

Indicating a happy outcome – The prospect for this project appears auspicious.

Synonyms: propitious, fortunate

Antonyms: ominous, foreboding

AUTHENTIC

Genuine -proved to be an authentic document.

Synonyms: veritable, bona fide

Antonyms: apocryphal, counterfeit, spurious, bogus

AUTOCRATIC

Despotic – feared by the masses as an autocratic ruler.

Synonym: tyrannical

Antonym: benevolent

AVARICE

Excessive greed – a fortune accumulated by avarice and miserliness.

Synonyms: covetousness, cupidity, avidity

Antonym: magnanimity

AWRY

Unsymmetrical; not straight – the picture, hanging awry on the wall.

Synonym: askew

 

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